Fidias (?), Friso del Partenón, c. 438-32 a.E.C.

Fidias (?), Friso del Partenón, c. 438-32 a.E.C.

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Fidias (?), Friso del Partenón, c. 438-32 a.E.C., mármol pentélico
(420 pies lineales de los 525 que completan el friso se encuentran en el Museo Británico)


Cómo los antiguos griegos diseñaron el Partenón para impresionar y durar

Pocos monumentos en el mundo son más reconocibles que el Partenón. Sentado en lo alto de una colina de piedra caliza que se eleva a unos 500 pies sobre el valle de Ilissos en Atenas, este altísimo templo de mármol construido en homenaje a la diosa Atenea trae la gloria de la antigua Grecia al mundo moderno.

Construido con una velocidad impresionante durante un enorme proyecto de construcción del siglo V en la ciudadela de la cima de una colina conocida como la Acrópolis, el Partenón no solo era hermoso, sino que fue construido para durar.

A través de bombardeos, ocupaciones, abandono, vandalismo e incluso terremotos, el Partenón y otras estructuras de la Acrópolis se han mantenido en pie, gracias a los sofisticados métodos empleados en su construcción.


Repatriación de obras de arte

La repatriación es la devolución de materiales culturales robados o saqueados a sus países de origen. Aunque la creencia de que saquear el patrimonio cultural es incorrecto y que los objetos robados deben ser devueltos a su legítimo propietario se remonta a la República Romana (ver Verrines de Cicerón), no fue hasta la década de 1950, cuando las crudas verdades de la colonización y los crímenes de guerra contra la humanidad comenzaron a surgir. expuesto, que surgió un amplio deseo de restitución y que las leyes y tratados para facilitar esto aumentaron en número. Los reclamos de repatriación se basan en la ley pero, lo que es más importante, representan un deseo ferviente de corregir un error, una especie de justicia restaurativa, que también requiere una admisión de culpabilidad y capitulación. Esto es lo que dificulta las repatriaciones: las naciones y las instituciones rara vez admiten que se equivocaron.

El debate y la ley

Placas de bronce del Reino de Benin en el Museo Británico, muchas retiradas de la ciudad de Benin durante la Expedición Punitiva de 1897 (foto: adunt, CC BY-NC 2.0)

La repatriación de objetos de arte y culturales es un tema popular en las noticias y hay una lista familiar de argumentos a ambos lados del debate. Los principales argumentos para la repatriación, desplegados con mayor frecuencia por países y pueblos que quieren recuperar sus objetos, son:

  • Es moralmente correcto, y refleja las leyes de propiedad básicas, que la propiedad robada o saqueada debe ser devuelta a su legítimo dueño.
  • Los objetos culturales pertenecen a las culturas que los crearon, estos objetos son una parte crucial de la identidad política y cultural contemporánea.
  • No devolver los objetos robados bajo los regímenes colonialistas es perpetuar las ideologías colonialistas que percibían a los pueblos colonizados como inherentemente inferiores (y a menudo “primitivos” de alguna manera).
  • Los museos con colecciones internacionales, a menudo llamados museos universales o enciclopédicos, se encuentran en el Norte global: Francia, Inglaterra, Alemania, los EE. UU., Lugares que son costosos de visitar y, por lo tanto, no son lugares donde la mayor parte del mundo pueda ir a ver arte. Es precisamente un legado colonial el que permitió a tantos museos “universales” adquirir la gama de objetos de su colección.
  • Incluso si los objetos se adquirieron originalmente legalmente, nuestras actitudes sobre la propiedad de los bienes culturales han cambiado y las colecciones deberían reflejar estas actitudes contemporáneas.

Los argumentos en contra de la repatriación, utilizados con mayor frecuencia por museos y colecciones que contienen objetos que no quieren perder, son:

  • Si todos los museos devolvieran objetos a sus países de origen, muchos museos estarían casi vacíos.
  • Los países de origen no cuentan con las instalaciones o el personal adecuados (debido a la pobreza y / o los conflictos armados) para recibir los materiales repatriados, por lo que los objetos están más seguros donde están ahora.
  • Los museos universales permiten que una gran cantidad de arte de muchos lugares diferentes sea visto fácilmente por mucha gente. Esto refleja nuestra moderna perspectiva globalista o cosmopolita.
  • Los reinos antiguos o históricos de los que procedían originalmente muchos objetos ya no existen o se extienden a través de muchas fronteras nacionales contemporáneas, como las del antiguo imperio romano. Por lo tanto, no está claro dónde exactamente se deben repatriar los objetos.
  • Devolver a sus países de origen los objetos culturales que se obtuvieron bajo los regímenes coloniales no compensa la destrucción del colonialismo.
  • La mayoría de los objetos de los museos y colecciones, en el momento de su adquisición, se obtuvieron legalmente y, por lo tanto, no tienen motivos para ser repatriados.

Alivio de una deidad protectora del Palacio del Noroeste, Nimrud, Irak, asirio, reinado de Ashurnasirpal II, 883–859 a. C., yeso, 221,7 x 176,3 cm (87 5/16 x 69 7/16 pulgadas) excavado por Sir Henry Layard por la década de 1850 (Museo de Bellas Artes de Boston)

El debate sobre la repatriación involucra sentimientos poderosos y personales de moralidad, nacionalidad e identidad, y pocas personas pueden hablar de ello sin levantar la voz. Independientemente de esta pasión, sin embargo, el tema, en última instancia, es legal y los marcos legales internacionales desarrollados en el siglo XX son los que provocan las repatriaciones. La primera, que reconoció los daños causados ​​por la guerra a la propiedad, fue la Convención de La Haya de 1907, que prohibía el saqueo de cualquier tipo durante los conflictos armados, aunque no se refería específicamente a los bienes culturales. Sin embargo, la Convención de La Haya de 1954, a raíz de la destrucción generalizada del arte durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, buscó proteger expresamente los bienes culturales durante los conflictos armados. La Convención de la UNESCO de 1970 permitió la incautación de objetos robados si existía una prueba de propiedad, seguida de la Convención de UNIDROIT de 1995 sobre bienes culturales robados o exportados ilegalmente, que exige la devolución de los bienes culturales excavados y exportados ilegalmente. Sin estas convenciones y tratados, no habría obligación legal de devolución de nada.

Reclamaciones de repatriaciones

El Koh-i-Noor en la cruz frontal de Queen Mary & # 8217s Crown (Royal Collection Trust)

La gran mayoría de los casos de repatriación se derivan de la subyugación colonial o imperial. A lo largo de la historia, en todo el mundo, naciones e imperios poderosos han tomado objetos valiosos, incluidos bienes culturales, de aquellos que han conquistado y colonizado. Estos objetos de belleza y estima se cuentan por muchos millones y es probable que sus antiguos dueños los pierdan para siempre. Sin embargo, el robo de algunos objetos especialmente valiosos y / o importantes ha resultado inolvidable y ha sido objeto de frecuentes solicitudes de repatriación. Algunos ejemplos son, por ejemplo: el diamante Koh-i-noor, incautado por la compañía británica de las Indias Orientales en 1849 y que actualmente forma parte de las joyas de la corona británica los Bronces de Benin, saqueado de la capital de Benin (en la actual Nigeria) por soldados británicos en 1897 y ahora repartida por varios museos de Europa y América la Piedra Rosetta, confiscada por las tropas británicas al ejército francés en Egipto en 1801 y hoy una de las exposiciones más populares del Museo Británico de Londres. Las esculturas del Partenón son otro ejemplo.

Los visitantes ven la piedra de Rosetta en el Museo Británico (foto: Dr. Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Los casos de repatriación como estos se han abordado, en general, caso por caso, entre las naciones que buscan el retorno y las naciones (y a veces instituciones específicas) que poseen estos objetos. Sin embargo, más recientemente, a medida que ha aumentado la presión por las repatriaciones, algunas antiguas potencias coloniales están haciendo un balance de sus colecciones y avanzando hacia repatriaciones a gran escala. Por ejemplo, en 2017 Francia encargó un informe que recomendaba la repatriación de objetos en museos franceses adquiridos durante la ocupación colonial francesa de partes de África occidental.

Museo Nacional de Culturas del Mundo (Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam)

En 2019, el gobierno alemán aprobó una resolución para sentar las bases para establecer las condiciones para la repatriación de restos humanos y objetos de colecciones públicas alemanas derivadas del dominio colonial. En 2019, el Museo Nacional de Culturas del Mundo de los Países Bajos se comprometió a devolver de forma proactiva todos los artefactos de su colección identificados como robados durante la época colonial. Estos esfuerzos, de manera importante, incluyen compartir catálogos de participaciones, un gesto de transparencia que facilitará enormemente las reclamaciones. Sin embargo, como muchos señalan, las intenciones declaradas de repatriaciones a gran escala están resultando muy, muy lentas en materializarse y, además, varios museos importantes (muchos en el Reino Unido) brillan por su ausencia en la conversación.

Los deseos colonialistas de recolectar objetos hermosos de fuentes lejanas y exóticas todavía están con nosotros y, debido a esto, las personas e instituciones ricas continúan recolectando objetos culturales, antiguos y contemporáneos. Para satisfacer esta demanda, los saqueadores modernos (personas que excavan ilegalmente y roban bienes culturales) alimentan un mercado subterráneo de antigüedades y objetos etnográficos. A menudo, este saqueo se produce en conjunción con una guerra o un conflicto político armado.

El coronel iraquí Ali Sabah, comandante del Batallón de Emergencia de Basora, muestra artefactos antiguos que las Fuerzas de Seguridad iraquíes descubrieron el 16 de diciembre de 2008 durante dos redadas en el norte de Basora (foto: Ejército de los EE. UU. Por la División Multinacional Sureste de la PAO, dominio público)

Los reclamos de repatriación de objetos involucrados en este comercio ilegal de bienes culturales son especialmente difíciles, ya que deben establecerse pruebas de la extracción ilícita de los objetos y los ladrones rara vez documentan su trabajo, especialmente en zonas de guerra. Además, este tipo de solicitudes de repatriación simbolizan nuevas heridas coloniales, lo que ilustra que las prácticas de recaudación de los ricos y poderosos continúan y las naciones y pueblos menos poderosos siguen siendo vulnerables.

La buena noticia es que se han producido repatriaciones satisfactorias de saqueos recientes y que se desalienta cada vez más a quienes compran en el comercio ilícito. Por ejemplo, en 2011, el Museo de Bellas Artes de Boston devolvió una escultura romana de Heracles a Turquía de la que había sido robada. En 2018, la Galería Nacional de Australia devolvió a la India una estatua de bronce del dios Shiva que había sido saqueada de un templo hindú en Tamil Nadu. En 2020, el Museo de la Biblia en Washington, DC devolvió casi 11,500 objetos saqueados a Irak y Egipto, incluidos aproximadamente 5,000 fragmentos de papiros y 6500 tabletas de arcilla.

Otro tipo de solicitud de repatriación es la devolución de objetos culturales y restos funerarios robados a poblaciones indígenas por invasores europeos, principalmente en América del Norte y del Sur, Australia, Oceanía y Nueva Zelanda. Lo que distingue a estas afirmaciones es la memoria viva y perdurable, entre las comunidades tribales contemporáneas, de objetos y sitios específicos que fueron saqueados y profanados y la aguda necesidad espiritual de su devolución y restauración. De hecho, estos fragmentos de la cultura viva solo pueden ser plenamente comprendidos, utilizados adecuadamente y atesorados con razón por sus propietarios nativos.

En un intento por abordar este tipo de solicitudes de repatriación, se promulgaron dos respuestas legisladas, la Ley de Repatriación de Tumbas y Protección de Nativos Americanos (en los EE. UU.) Y el Programa de Repatriación de Indígenas (en Australia). A través de estos dos programas, se establecieron marcos legales para la repatriación y se han devuelto cientos de miles de objetos y restos humanos a las comunidades indígenas donde vuelven a trabajar como poderosos actores en la creación de sentido espiritual, comunitario y personal. Un ejemplo famoso es el regreso de The Ancient One (también llamado Kennewick Man) después de que cinco tribus del noroeste del Pacífico argumentaran que los restos humanos eran un antepasado. Sin embargo, la repatriación exitosa se produjo solo después de que las pruebas genéticas realizadas por científicos daneses demostraron el reclamo de los pueblos indígenas, destacando los legados colonialistas en curso que afectan la repatriación cultural.

Moai Hoa Hakananai’a, sacado de Orongo, Isla de Pascua (Rapa Nui) en noviembre de 1868 por la tripulación del barco británico HMS Topaze y ahora en el Museo Británico (foto: Markus Lütkemeyer, CC BY 2.0)

Por fin ha llegado la era de las repatriaciones. El trabajo es lento y desigual y hay innumerables objetos por regresar a casa, pero las repatriaciones se están produciendo a un ritmo nunca antes visto. Lo que nos muestran ejemplos como el cráter de Euphronios sobre la repatriación es que los objetos vuelven cambiados. No solo físicamente, sino también por la forma en que se han utilizado (a menudo ideológicamente) en sus significados, y no se pueden cambiar. Incluso si se exhiben de manera tranquila e históricamente proscrita (como en el caso de la crátera Euphronios), su experiencia de vida los ha hecho más grandes, más ruidosos, emocionales y más políticos.


Metopas

Noventa y dos metopas talladas (bloques cuadrados colocados entre bloques de triglifos de tres canales) adornan las paredes exteriores del Partenón. Las metopas del lado oeste representan la Amazonomaquia, una batalla mítica entre las amazonas y los antiguos griegos, y se cree que fueron diseñadas por el escultor Kalamis.

Las metopas del lado este muestran Gigantomaquia, batallas míticas entre dioses y gigantes. La mayoría de las metopas del lado sur muestran la Centauromaquia, la batalla de los centauros míticos con los lapitas, y las metopas del lado norte retratan la guerra de Troya.


El Partenón, Atenas

Aprenda sobre el gran templo de Atenea, patrón de Atenas, y la turbulenta historia del edificio.

Iktinos y Kallikrates (programa escultórico dirigido por Phidias), Partenón, Atenas, 447 y # 8211 432 a. C. Ponentes: Dra. Beth Harris y Dr. Steven Zucker.

Iris, desde el frontón oeste del Partenón, c. 438-432 a.E.C., mármol, 135 cm de altura, Atenas, Grecia © Fideicomisarios del Museo Británico

Atenas y la democracia

Alrededor del 500 a. De la E.C. El "gobierno del pueblo", o la democracia, había surgido en la ciudad de Atenas. Tras la derrota de una invasión persa en 480-479 a.E.C., Grecia continental y Atenas en particular entraron en una edad de oro. En teatro y filosofía, literatura, arte y arquitectura, Atenas fue insuperable. El imperio de la ciudad se extendía desde el Mediterráneo occidental hasta el Mar Negro, creando una enorme riqueza. Esto pagó uno de los mayores proyectos de construcción pública jamás visto en Grecia, que incluía el Partenón.

El templo conocido como Partenón fue construido en la Acrópolis de Atenas entre 447 y 438 a. C. Formaba parte de un vasto programa de construcción ideado por el estadista ateniense Perikles. En el interior del templo había una estatua colosal que representaba a Atenea, la diosa patrona de la ciudad. La estatua, que ya no existe, estaba hecha de oro y marfil y fue obra del célebre escultor Fidias.

Esculturas del Partenón

El edificio en sí estaba decorado con esculturas de mármol que representaban escenas del culto y la mitología atenienses. Hay tres categorías de escultura arquitectónica. El friso (tallado en bajo relieve) se extendía por los cuatro lados del edificio dentro de las columnatas. Las metopas (talladas en alto relieve) se colocaron al mismo nivel que el friso sobre el arquitrabe que remata las columnas en el exterior del templo. Las esculturas del frontón (talladas en redondo) llenaron los frontones triangulares en cada extremo.

Aunque el edificio iba a sufrir una serie de cambios, permaneció prácticamente intacto hasta el siglo XVII. Los primeros cristianos convirtieron el templo en una iglesia, agregando un ábside en el extremo este. Probablemente fue en este momento cuando las esculturas que representan el nacimiento de Atenea se quitaron del centro del frontón este y muchas de las metopas fueron desfiguradas. El Partenón sirvió como iglesia hasta que Atenas fue conquistada por los turcos otomanos en el siglo XV, cuando se convirtió en mezquita. En 1687, durante el asedio veneciano de la Acrópolis, los turcos defensores estaban usando el Partenón como almacén de pólvora, que fue encendida por el bombardeo veneciano. La explosión explotó el corazón del edificio, destruyendo el techo y partes de las paredes y la columnata.

Los venecianos lograron capturar la Acrópolis, pero la mantuvieron durante menos de un año. Se produjeron más daños en un intento de quitar las esculturas del frontón oeste, cuando el aparejo de elevación se rompió y las esculturas cayeron y se rompieron. Muchas de las esculturas que fueron destruidas en 1687, ahora se conocen solo por dibujos hechos en 1674, por un artista probablemente identificado como Jacques Carrey.

Metopa de mármol del Partenón

Metopa de mármol del Partenón, C. 447-438 a.E.C., 172 cm de altura, Acrópolis, Atenas © Fideicomisarios del Museo Británico

La decoración esculpida del Partenón incluía noventa y dos metopas que mostraban escenas de batallas míticas. Aquellos en el flanco sur del templo incluyeron una serie con lapitas humanos en combate mortal con centauros. Los centauros eran en parte hombres y en parte caballo, por lo que tenían un lado civil y salvaje en su naturaleza. Los lapitas, una tribu griega vecina, cometieron el error de darles vino a los centauros en la fiesta de bodas de su rey, Peirithoos. Los centauros intentaron violar a las mujeres, con su líder Euritión tratando de llevarse a la novia. Siguió una batalla general, con los lapitas finalmente victoriosos.

Aquí, un joven Lapith sostiene a un Centauro por detrás con una mano, mientras se prepara para asestar un golpe con la otra. La composición está perfectamente equilibrada, con los protagonistas tirando en direcciones opuestas, alrededor de un espacio central llenado por los pliegues en cascada del manto Lapith & # 8217s.

Fragmento del friso

Jinetes del friso occidental del Partenón, C. 438-432 a. C., 100 cm de altura, Acrópolis, Atenas © Fideicomisarios del Museo Británico

Este bloque se colocó cerca de la esquina del friso oeste del Partenón, donde giraba hacia el norte. Los jinetes se han movido a cierta velocidad, pero ahora están retrocediendo para no parecer que se han salido del borde del friso. El jinete que va delante se gira para mirar a su compañero y se lleva una mano (que ahora falta) a la cabeza. Este gesto, repetido en otras partes del friso, es quizás una señal. Aunque aquí se pueden ver jinetes montados, gran parte del friso oeste presenta a jinetes preparándose para la cabalgata propiamente dicha, que se muestra en los lados largos norte y sur del templo.

Escultura de frontón

Figuras de tres diosas del frontón este del Partenón, C. 438-432 a.E.C., 233 cm de largo, Acrópolis, Atenas © Fideicomisarios del Museo Británico

El frontón este del Partenón mostraba el nacimiento de la diosa Atenea de la cabeza de su padre Zeus. Las esculturas que representaban la escena real se pierden. Probablemente se mostró a Zeus sentado, mientras que Atenea se alejaba de él completamente desarrollada y armada.

Solo algunas de las figuras ubicadas a ambos lados del grupo central perdido sobreviven. Incluyen estas tres diosas, que estaban sentadas a la derecha del centro. De izquierda a derecha, su postura varía para adaptarse a la pendiente del frontón que originalmente los enmarcaba. Son notables por su interpretación naturalista de la anatomía combinada con una representación armoniosa de cortinas complejas.

La figura de la izquierda está a punto de levantarse y mete el pie derecho para levantarse. A la derecha, otra figura acuna a una compañera reclinada lujosamente en su regazo. Quizás sean, de izquierda a derecha, Hestia, diosa del hogar y del hogar, Dione y su hija Afrodita. Sin embargo, otra sugerencia es que las dos figuras de la derecha son la personificación del Mar (Thalassa) en el regazo de la Tierra (Gaia).

Lecturas sugeridas:

B.F. Cook, Los mármoles de Elgin (Londres, The British Museum Press, 1997).


© Fideicomisarios del Museo Británico


Figuras de tres diosas del frontón este del Partenón

El frontón este del Partenón mostraba el nacimiento de la diosa Atenea de la cabeza de su padre Zeus. Las esculturas que representaban la escena real se pierden. Probablemente se mostró a Zeus sentado, mientras que Atenea se alejaba de él completamente desarrollada y armada.

Solo algunas de las figuras ubicadas a ambos lados del grupo central perdido sobreviven. Incluyen estas tres diosas, que estaban sentadas a la derecha del centro. De izquierda a derecha, su postura varía para adaptarse a la pendiente de las molduras arquitectónicas que enmarcaban el frontón. Son notables por su interpretación naturalista de la anatomía combinada con una representación armoniosa de cortinas complejas.

La figura de la izquierda está a punto de levantarse y mete el pie derecho para levantarse. A la derecha, otra figura acuna a una compañera reclinada lujosamente en su regazo. Quizás sean, de izquierda a derecha, Hestia, diosa del hogar y el hogar, Dione y su hija Afrodita. Sin embargo, otra sugerencia es que las dos figuras de la derecha son la personificación del Mar (Thalassa) en el regazo de la Tierra (Gaia).


Fidias (?), Friso del Partenón, c. 438-32 a.E.C. - Historia

Zidovi dorskog hrama su ravni i imaju jedino sokl sa stopom i završni profil. Sokl je uvek ravna ploča koja minimalno izlazi ispred ravni zidova. Stubovi nemaju stopu, stablo dorskog stuba leži neposredno na stilobatu. Razmak stubova je mali, un dodatkom stope en bi se još više suzio. Sve do 5. veka stubovi ne dostizu visinu od 5 precnika, da bi tek kasnije presli tu visinu i dostigli sve do 7 ili 8 precnika.

Stablo dorskog stuba profilisano je kanelurama i završava se kapitelom koji je jednostavan u formi i sveden u dekoraciji. Kanelure počinju od dna stabla i zavrsavaju se pod kapitelom.

Kapitel stuba se sastoji iz tri dela, abakusa, ravne ploče koja naleže na arhitrav kime koja se kružnim stablom naslanja na telo stuba i trakama koje dekorativno izražavaju posredničku ulogu između stabla i kapitela. Abakus kapitela je bio bojen, dekorisan meandrom (crtanim i bojenim).

Arhitrav je greda koja povezuje stubove i gornju konsturkciju. Uvek je sastavljen iz više delova, a prednja strana je ravna i jednostavna, ali ima izuzetaka. Završava se obično jednom ravno uskom trakom i malim ispustom. Visina mu je približno jednaka gornjem prečniku stuba, ali se u kasnijim periodima smanjuje u korist friza. Unutrašnja strana je ili sasvim ravna kao na Partenonu ili je završena uskom pločicom ili dorskom kimom.

Friz je srednji pojas glavnog venca koji uzdiže zgradu. Sastavljen je iz triglifa i metopa. Triglifi nose venac i u vidu su tri stubića, una metopa su četvgusto ploče koje popunjavaju prazninu između. Metope su ispunjene plastikom, skulpturom. Triglifi su pored reljefne dekoracije bili i bojeni što Vitruvije potvrdjuje za starije dorske spomenike. Šest najpoznatijih dorskih hramova su u Selinuntu, Posejdonov hram, u Paestrumu Dimitrov hram u Paestrumu, ruševine hrama u Agrigendu, Zevsov Hram u Olimpiji, Tezejon u Ateni, Partenon na Akropoljuram u Figalonov hram.

Pogledaj i poslušaj: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ancient-art-civilizations/greek-art/classical/v/parthenon

Pogledaj: Sl. 1 Šema stuba hrama dorskog reda.

: Sl. 2 Hram Apolona u Korintu.

Partenon je hram posvećen grčkoj boginji Atini, zaštitnici grada Atine, izgrađen u 5. veku p.n.e. na Akropolju.

Partenon je svakako jedan od najznačajnijih hramova klasičnog stila, koji se smatra vrhuncem razvoja dorskog stila. Njegove dekorativne skulpture ubrajaju se u najvažnija dela starogrčke umetnosti.

Nakon što je Kserks uništio arhajski hram na vrhu Akropolja u 480. godini, Atinjani su želeli ne samo da zamene stari hram već i da ovekoveče pobedu nad Persijancima ponovo izgradivši ovo sveto mesto na masivnoj steni. Njihova zaštitnica Atina dobila je spektakularni novi hram, Partenon.

Izgradnju Partenona je nadgledao vajar Fidija, koji je bio zadužen i za skulpturalnu dekoraciju.

Arhitekte Iktin i Kalikrat započeli su gradnju 447. godine p.n.e. i zgrada je završena do 432. godine. Dekoracija hrama trajala je i nakon izgradnje još godinu dana.

Unutar ovog hrama bila je statua Atine Partenos (dispositivo) koju je napravio Fidija, sigurno odgovoran i za većinu drugih skulptura i skulpturalnog ukrasa. Skulptura Atine radjena je u hrisoelefantskoj tehnici, inkarnat i otkriveni delovi tela su u slonovači, dok su ostali prekriveni delovi u zlatu.

Statua je preživela hiljade godina. Verovatno je prenesena u Carigrad, gde je nestala tokom srednjeg veka. Iktin, graditelj Partenona i njegov saradnik Kalikrat bili su povezani sa gradnjom hrama Atene Nike i dugačkim zidovima koji su povezivali Atinu sa lukom Pirej.

Temelj Partenona preostao od ranoklasičnog zdanja, proširen je na severnoj strani. Umesto tradicionalnog broja stubova 6:13 podignuto je 8:17.

Četiri strane friza metopa bile su ukrašene tematskim programom. Uno su podeljene na sledeće sadržajne celine, kako se navodi u narednim slajdovima.

Na istočnom frontonu prikazan je svet Olimpijaca izvanrednih razmera - ne više u borbi kao na metopama, niti na zemlji kao na frizu, već na svetom brdu Olimpu, u radjanutku radjanja Atene, čiji je rodjendan slavljen za vreme Panateneja. Polegla božanstva, Dionis levo i Afrodita desno, jos nisu opazili ovaj dogadjaj. U levom uglu diže se Helios, čiji se konji propinju pred čudom koje vlada čitavom prirodom. među centralnim figurama, samo se nekoliko može prepoznati. Hefest i Zevs, na prestolu, iza njega stoji Hera, Atina i najzad Nike koja krunise Atenu. Prisna grupa Demetre i Kore sede na cisti sa svetim predmetima, hierama eleusinskh misterija sa kojima se one poistovećuju. Pejto (Pietho) pocinje tacno da shvata sta se desava, ali ona ne zeli da uznemiri svoju gospoaricu, Afroditu, koja se odmara na njenim grudima. Desno od Afrodite, Noć koja joj pripada, spušta svoju zapregu u kosmički okean.

Pozornica radnje nije na Olimpu već na samom Akropolju. Atina i Posejdon lično su sišli na Akropolj sa Olimpa da bi ga preuzeli, dok su herojske porodice zahvaćene užasom. Figura de Zato nisu postavljene u miru već su uznemireni i povučeni u prednji plan. Fragmenti sa ovog frontona najsnažnije su svedočanstvo klasične umetnosti - kruna Fidijinog dela. Budući da je veoma malo originalne skulpture ostalo rekonstrukcija ovog.

Metopa de Istočne

Gigantomahija otkriva svet žitelja Olimpa, u homerovskom smislu. Iznad sedam razmaka stubova nalaze se metope. Sedam levo od Atene, koja se smatra za pravog pobednika nad Gigantima i sedam desno od Herakla, bez koga ne bi bilo pobede. Između njih šest metopa je bilo sačuvano za tri nadmoćna para: u sredini Zevs i Hera, s njihove leve strane Posejdon i Amfitrita, a sa desne, takodje okrenuti ka sredistu Apolon i Artemida. U prve tri metope predstavljeni su Hermes, Dionis, Ares, a u poslednje tri Afrodita, Hefest, Helios.

Metopa Zapadne

Programa zapadnih metopa čini Amazonomahiju.

Južne metopa

Na južnoj strani je predstava Kentauromahije. Prema starim crtežima pretpostavlja se da su na južnim metopama bilis predstavljene scene vezane za ustanovljenje panatenejskih svečanosti.

Metopa Severne

Predstavljaju ciklus u kojima se prikazuju borbe Grčko-Trojanskog rata.

Friz vodi ka istoku, gde bogovi, sreću povorku. Zevs koji sedi čini se nesto većim od ostalih. Primoran je da sagne glavu da bi mogao da stane u friz. Plašt mu je skliznuo sa ramena, leva ruka se odmara na naslonu, a desna sa skiptrom je na kolenima. Hera skida svoj veo, una glasnik bogova Irida najavljuje povorku. Grupa bogova pred Herom odaje jonskog majstora, Ares, njen sin obavio je rukama desno koleno, Demetra desnom rukom dodiruje bradu i “vecito salmuera za svoju kcer Persefonu” donosi hleb, a Dionis vino i sedi na jastvu seme oslanjajucita redu, sa putnom kapom na kolenima, obuven u putnu obuću u desnoj ruci drži žezlo.

Atina koja sedi u poslednjem redu božanstava okrenutih severu, zauzima počasno mesto, kao i Zevs. Artemida se živo okreće ka Afroditi. Afrodita je ovde prvi puso prikazana kao Erosova majka. Ona je stavila ruku na suncobran da mu zaštiti telo od toplote. Povorka se završava između dve polovine grupe sa bogovima, u unutrasnjosti hrama dve mlade devojke difrofore, donose sedišta ukrašena jastucima, jer prisustvo bogova izaziva molitve ljudi. Jedna sveštenica im pomaže da postave svoj teret ona je u službi Atene Polias i predstavlja središnji lik u celini friza. Iza nje, jedan blagajnik predaje slugi na čuvanje novi peplos koji je darovala povorka.

Sl. 1 - Partenon, 2 - frontoni, 3 - skulpturalna dekoracija, 4 - metope, 5 - friz, 6 - Fidija


Contenido

El origen del nombre del Partenón es de la palabra griega παρθενών (Partenón), que se refería a los "apartamentos de mujeres solteras" en una casa y en el caso del Partenón parece haber sido utilizado en un principio solo para una habitación particular del templo [17], se debate qué habitación es y cómo adquirió su lugar. nombre. El Liddell – Scott – Jones Léxico griego-inglés afirma que esta habitación era la cella occidental del Partenón, al igual que J.B. Bury. [11] Jamauri D. Green sostiene que el Partenón fue la habitación en la que los peplos presentados a Atenea en el Festival Panatenaico fueron tejidos por el arrephoroi, un grupo de cuatro jóvenes elegidas para servir a Athena cada año. [18] Christopher Pelling afirma que Athena Parthenos puede haber constituido un culto discreto de Atenea, íntimamente conectado, pero no idéntico, al de Atenea Polias. [19] Según esta teoría, el nombre del Partenón significa "templo de la diosa virgen" y se refiere al culto de Atenea Partenos que estaba asociado con el templo. [20] El epíteto parthénos (παρθένος) significaba "doncella, niña", así como "mujer virgen y soltera". [21] El término se usó especialmente para Artemisa, la diosa de los animales salvajes, la vegetación y la caza, y para Atenea, la diosa de la estrategia, la táctica, la artesanía y la razón práctica. [22] También se ha sugerido que el nombre del templo alude a las doncellas (parthénoi), cuyo supremo sacrificio garantizaba la seguridad de la ciudad. [23] Parthénos también se ha aplicado a la Virgen María (Parthénos María) y el Partenón se convirtió en una iglesia cristiana dedicada a la Virgen María en la última década del siglo VI. [24]

La primera instancia en la que Partenón Definitivamente se refiere a todo el edificio se encuentra en los escritos del orador del siglo IV aC Demóstenes. En las cuentas de los edificios del siglo V, la estructura se llama simplemente ὁ νᾱός (ho naos iluminado. "el templo"). Se dice que los arquitectos Iktinos y Callicrates llamaron al edificio Ἑκατόμπεδος (Hekatómpedos iluminado. "el cien pies") en su tratado perdido sobre arquitectura ateniense. [25] Harpocration escribe que el Partenón solía ser llamado Hekatompedos por algunos, no por su tamaño sino por su belleza y finas proporciones [25] y, en el siglo IV y más tarde, el edificio fue llamado el Hekatompedos o la Hekatompedon así como el Partenón Plutarco, escritor del siglo I d.C., se refirió al edificio como el Partenón de Hekatompedos. [26]

Because the Parthenon was dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena it has sometimes been referred to as the Temple of Minerva, the Roman name for Athena, particularly during the 19th century. [27]

Although the Parthenon is architecturally a temple and is usually called so, some scholars have argued that it is not really a "temple" in the conventional sense of the word. [28] A small shrine has been excavated within the building, on the site of an older sanctuary probably dedicated to Athena as a way to get closer to the goddess, [28] but the Parthenon apparently never hosted the official cult of Athena Polias, patron of Athens: the cult image of Athena Polias, which was bathed in the sea and to which was presented the peplos, was an olive-wood xoanon, located in another temple on the northern side of the Acropolis, more closely associated with the Great Altar of Athena. [29]

The colossal statue of Athena by Phidias was not specifically related to any cult attested by ancient authors [30] and is not known to have inspired any religious fervor. [29] Preserved ancient sources do not associate it with any priestess, altar or cult name. [31] According to Thucydides, during the Peloponnesian War when Sparta's forces were first preparing to invade Attica, Pericles, in an address to the Athenian people, said that the statue could be used as a gold reserve if that was necessary to preserve Athens, stressing that it "contained forty talents of pure gold and it was all removable", but adding that the gold would afterward have to be restored. [32] The Athenian statesman thus implies that the metal, obtained from contemporary coinage, [33] could be used again if absolutely necessary without any impiety. [31] Some scholars, therefore, argue that the Parthenon should be viewed as a grand setting for a monumental votive statue rather than as a cult site. [34] It is said [ ¿por quién? ] in many writings of the Greeks that there were many treasures stored inside the temple, such as Persian swords and small statue figures made of precious metals.

Archaeologist Joan Breton Connelly has recently argued for the coherency of the Parthenon's sculptural program in presenting a succession of genealogical narratives that track Athenian identity back through the ages: from the birth of Athena, through cosmic and epic battles, to the final great event of the Athenian Bronze Age, the war of Erechtheus and Eumolpos. [35] [36] She argues a pedagogical function for the Parthenon's sculptured decoration, one that establishes and perpetuates Athenian foundation myth, memory, values and identity. [37] [38] While some classicists, including Mary Beard, Peter Green, and Garry Wills [39] [40] have doubted or rejected Connelly's thesis, an increasing number of historians, archaeologists, and classical scholars support her work. They include: J.J. Pollitt, [41] Brunilde Ridgway, [42] Nigel Spivey, [43] Caroline Alexander, [44] and A. E. Stallings. [45]

Older Parthenon Edit

The first endeavor to build a sanctuary for Athena Parthenos on the site of the present Parthenon was begun shortly after the Battle of Marathon (c. 490–488 BC) upon a solid limestone foundation that extended and leveled the southern part of the Acropolis summit. This building replaced a Hekatompedon temple ("hundred-footer") and would have stood beside the archaic temple dedicated to Atenea Polias ("of the city"). The Older or Pre-Parthenon, as it is frequently referred to, was still under construction when the Persians sacked the city in 480 BC razing the Acropolis. [46] [47]

The existence of both the proto-Parthenon and its destruction were known from Herodotus, [48] and the drums of its columns were plainly visible built into the curtain wall north of the Erechtheion. Further physical evidence of this structure was revealed with the excavations of Panagiotis Kavvadias of 1885–90. The findings of this dig allowed Wilhelm Dörpfeld, then director of the German Archaeological Institute, to assert that there existed a distinct substructure to the original Parthenon, called Parthenon I by Dörpfeld, not immediately below the present edifice as had been previously assumed. [49] Dörpfeld's observation was that the three steps of the first Parthenon consisted of two steps of Poros limestone, the same as the foundations, and a top step of Karrha limestone that was covered by the lowest step of the Periclean Parthenon. This platform was smaller and slightly to the north of the final Parthenon, indicating that it was built for a wholly different building, now completely covered over. This picture was somewhat complicated by the publication of the final report on the 1885–90 excavations, indicating that the substructure was contemporary with the Kimonian walls, and implying a later date for the first temple. [50]

If the original Parthenon was indeed destroyed in 480, it invites the question of why the site was left as a ruin for thirty-three years. One argument involves the oath sworn by the Greek allies before the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC [51] declaring that the sanctuaries destroyed by the Persians would not be rebuilt, an oath from which the Athenians were only absolved with the Peace of Callias in 450. [52] The mundane fact of the cost of reconstructing Athens after the Persian sack is at least as likely a cause. However, the excavations of Bert Hodge Hill led him to propose the existence of a second Parthenon, begun in the period of Kimon after 468 BC. [53] Hill claimed that the Karrha limestone step Dörpfeld thought was the highest of Parthenon I was in fact the lowest of the three steps of Parthenon II, whose stylobate dimensions Hill calculated at 23.51 by 66.888 metres (77.13 ft × 219.45 ft).

One difficulty in dating the proto-Parthenon is that at the time of the 1885 excavation the archaeological method of seriation was not fully developed the careless digging and refilling of the site led to a loss of much valuable information. An attempt to discuss and make sense of the potsherds found on the Acropolis came with the two-volume study by Graef and Langlotz published in 1925–33. [54] This inspired American archaeologist William Bell Dinsmoor to attempt to supply limiting dates for the temple platform and the five walls hidden under the re-terracing of the Acropolis. Dinsmoor concluded that the latest possible date for Parthenon I was no earlier than 495 BC, contradicting the early date given by Dörpfeld. [55] Further, Dinsmoor denied that there were two proto-Parthenons, and held that the only pre-Periclean temple was what Dörpfeld referred to as Parthenon II. Dinsmoor and Dörpfeld exchanged views in the Revista estadounidense de arqueología in 1935. [56]

Present building Edit

In the mid-5th century BC, when the Athenian Acropolis became the seat of the Delian League and Athens was the greatest cultural center of its time, Pericles initiated an ambitious building project that lasted the entire second half of the century. The most important buildings visible on the Acropolis today – the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion and the temple of Athena Nike – were erected during this period. The Parthenon was built under the general supervision of the artist Phidias, who also had charge of the sculptural decoration. The architects Ictinos and Callicrates began their work in 447 BC, and the building was substantially completed by 432. However, work on the decorations continued until at least 431.

The Parthenon was built primarily by men who knew how to work marble. These quarrymen had exceptional skills and were able to cut the blocks of marble to very specific measurements. The quarrymen also knew how to avoid the faults, which were numerous in the Pentelic marble. If the marble blocks were not up to standard, the architects would reject them. The marble was worked with iron tools -- picks, points, punches, chisels, and drills. The quarrymen would hold their tools against the marble block and firmly tap the surface of the rock. [57]

A big project like the Parthenon attracted stonemasons from far and wide who traveled to Athens to assist in the project. Slaves and foreigners worked together with the Athenian citizens in the building of the Parthenon, doing the same jobs for the same pay. Temple building was a very specialized craft, and there were not many men in Greece qualified to build temples like the Parthenon, so these men would travel around and work where they were needed. [58]

Other craftsmen also were necessary for the building of the Parthenon, specifically carpenters and metalworkers. Unskilled laborers also had key roles in the building of the Parthenon. These laborers loaded and unloaded the marble blocks and moved the blocks from place to place. In order to complete a project like the Parthenon, a number of different laborers were needed, and each played a critical role in constructing the final building. [59]

The Parthenon is a peripteral octastyle Doric temple with Ionic architectural features. It stands on a platform or stylobate of three steps. In common with other Greek temples, it is of post and lintel construction and is surrounded by columns ('peripteral') carrying an entablature. There are eight columns at either end ('octastyle') and seventeen on the sides. There is a double row of columns at either end. The colonnade surrounds an inner masonry structure, the cella, which is divided into two compartments. At either end of the building, the gable is finished with a triangular pediment originally occupied by sculpted figures. The columns are of the Doric order, with simple capitals, fluted shafts, and no bases. Above the architrave of the entablature is a frieze of carved pictorial panels (metopes), separated by formal architectural triglyphs, typical of the Doric order. Around the cella and across the lintels of the inner columns runs a continuous sculptured frieze in low relief. This element of the architecture is Ionic in style rather than Doric. [60]

Measured at the stylobate, the dimensions of the base of the Parthenon are 69.5 by 30.9 metres (228 by 101 ft). The cella was 29.8 meters long by 19.2 meters wide (97.8 × 63.0 ft). On the exterior, the Doric columns measure 1.9 metres (6.2 ft) in diameter and are 10.4 metres (34 ft) high. The corner columns are slightly larger in diameter. The Parthenon had 46 outer columns and 23 inner columns in total, each column having 20 flutes. (A flute is the concave shaft carved into the column form.) The roof was covered with large overlapping marble tiles known as imbrices and tegulae. [61] [62]

The Parthenon is regarded as the finest example of Greek architecture. The temple wrote John Julius Cooper, "Enjoys the reputation of being the most perfect Doric temple ever built. Even in antiquity, its architectural refinements were legendary, especially the subtle correspondence between the curvature of the stylobate, the taper of the naos walls, and the entasis of the columns." [63] Entasis refers to the slight swelling, of 4 centimetres (1.6 in), in the center of the columns to counteract the appearance of columns having a waist, as the swelling makes them look straight from a distance. The stylobate is the platform on which the columns stand. As in many other classical Greek temples, [64] it has a slight parabolic upward curvature intended to shed rainwater and reinforce the building against earthquakes. The columns might therefore be supposed to lean outward, but they actually lean slightly inward so that if they carried on, they would meet almost exactly 2,400 metres (1.5 mi) above the center of the Parthenon. [65] Since they are all the same height, the curvature of the outer stylobate edge is transmitted to the architrave and roof above: "All follow the rule of being built to delicate curves", Gorham Stevens observed when pointing out that, in addition, the west front was built at a slightly higher level than that of the east front. [66]

It is not universally agreed what the intended effect of these "optical refinements" was. They may serve as a sort of "reverse optical illusion." [67] As the Greeks may have been aware, two parallel lines appear to bow, or curve outward, when intersected by converging lines. In this case, the ceiling and floor of the temple may seem to bow in the presence of the surrounding angles of the building. Striving for perfection, the designers may have added these curves, compensating for the illusion by creating their own curves, thus negating this effect and allowing the temple to be seen as they intended. It is also suggested that it was to enliven what might have appeared an inert mass in the case of a building without curves. But the comparison ought to be, according to Smithsonian historian Evan Hadingham, with the Parthenon's more obviously curved predecessors than with a notional rectilinear temple. [68]

Some studies of the Acropolis, including of the Parthenon and its façade, have conjectured that many of its proportions approximate the golden ratio. [69] However, such theories have been discredited by more recent studies, which have shown that the proportions of the Parthenon do not match the golden proportion. [70] [71]

The cella of the Parthenon housed the chryselephantine statue of Athena Parthenos sculpted by Phidias and dedicated in 439 or 438 BC. The appearance of this is known from other images. The decorative stonework was originally highly colored. [72] The temple was dedicated to Athena at that time, though construction continued until almost the beginning of the Peloponnesian War in 432. By the year 438, the sculptural decoration of the Doric metopes on the frieze above the exterior colonnade, and of the Ionic frieze around the upper portion of the walls of the cella, had been completed. En el opisthodomos (the back room of the cella) were stored the monetary contributions of the Delian League, of which Athens was the leading member.

Only a very small number of the sculptures remain en el lugar most of the surviving sculptures are today (controversially) in the British Museum in London (as with the Parthenon Marbles) and the Acropolis Museum in Athens, with a few pieces in the Louvre, National Museum of Denmark, and museums in Rome, Vienna, and Palermo. [73]

Metopes Edit

The frieze of the Parthenon's entablature contained 92 metopes, 14 each on the east and west sides, 32 each on the north and south sides. They were carved in high relief, a practice employed until then only in treasuries (buildings used to keep votive gifts to the gods). [74] According to the building records, the metope sculptures date to the years 446–440 BC. The metopes of the east side of the Parthenon, above the main entrance, depict the Gigantomachy (the mythical battle between the Olympian gods and the Giants). The metopes of the west end show the Amazonomachy (the mythical battle of the Athenians against the Amazons). The metopes of the south side show the Thessalian Centauromachy (battle of the Lapiths aided by Theseus against the half-man, half-horse Centaurs). Metopes 13–21 are missing, but drawings from 1674 attributed to Jaques Carrey indicate a series of humans these have been variously interpreted as scenes from the Lapith wedding, scenes from the early history of Athens, and various myths. [75] On the north side of the Parthenon, the metopes are poorly preserved, but the subject seems to be the sack of Troy.

The mythological figures of the metopes of the East, North, and West sides of the Parthenon had been deliberately mutilated by Christian iconoclasts in late antiquity. [76]

The metopes present examples of the Severe Style in the anatomy of the figures' heads, in the limitation of the corporal movements to the contours and not to the muscles, and in the presence of pronounced veins in the figures of the Centauromachy. Several of the metopes still remain on the building, but, with the exception of those on the northern side, they are severely damaged. Some of them are located at the Acropolis Museum, others are in the British Museum, and one is at the Louvre museum. [77]

In March 2011, archaeologists announced that they had discovered five metopes of the Parthenon in the south wall of the Acropolis, which had been extended when the Acropolis was used as a fortress. De acuerdo a Eleftherotypia daily, the archaeologists claimed the metopes had been placed there in the 18th century when the Acropolis wall was being repaired. The experts discovered the metopes while processing 2,250 photos with modern photographic methods, as the white Pentelic marble they are made of differed from the other stone of the wall. It was previously presumed that the missing metopes were destroyed during the Morosini explosion of the Parthenon in 1687. [78]

Frieze Edit

The most characteristic feature in the architecture and decoration of the temple is the Ionic frieze running around the exterior of the cella walls. The bas-relief frieze was carved in situ and is dated to 442 BC-438 BC.

One interpretation is that it depicts an idealized version of the Panathenaic procession from the Dipylon Gate in the Kerameikos to the Acropolis. In this procession held every year, with a special procession taking place every four years, Athenians and foreigners participated in honoring the goddess Athena by offering her sacrifices and a new peplos dress, woven by selected noble Athenian girls called ergastines. The procession is more crowded (appearing to slow in pace) as it nears the gods on the eastern side of the temple. [79]

Joan Breton Connelly offers a mythological interpretation for the frieze, one that is in harmony with the rest of the temple's sculptural program which shows Athenian genealogy through a series of succession myths set in the remote past. She identifies the central panel above the door of the Parthenon as the pre-battle sacrifice of the daughter of the king Erechtheus, a sacrifice that ensured Athenian victory over Eumolpos and his Thracian army. The great procession marching toward the east end of the Parthenon shows the post-battle thanksgiving sacrifice of cattle and sheep, honey and water, followed by the triumphant army of Erechtheus returning from their victory. This represents the first Panathenaia set in mythical times, the model on which historic Panathenaic processions were based. [80] [81]

Pediments Edit

The traveller Pausanias, when he visited the Acropolis at the end of the 2nd century AD, only mentioned briefly the sculptures of the pediments (gable ends) of the temple, reserving the majority of his description for the gold and ivory statue of the goddess inside. [82]

East pediment Edit

The figures on the corners of the pediment depict the passage of time over the course of a full day. Tethrippa of Helios and Selene are located on the left and right corners of the pediment respectively. The horses of Helios's chariot are shown with livid expressions as they ascend into the sky at the start of the day whereas Selene's horses struggle to stay on the pediment scene as the day comes to an end. [83] [84]

West pediment Edit

The supporters of Athena are extensively illustrated at the back of the left chariot, while the defenders of Poseidon are shown trailing behind the right chariot. It is believed that the corners of the pediment are filled by Athenian water deities, such as the Kephisos river, the Ilissos river, and nymph Kallirhoe. This belief emerges from the fluid character of the sculptures' body position which represents the effort of the artist to give the impression of a flowing river. [85] [86] Next to the left river god, there are the sculptures of the mythical king of Athens (Cecrops or Kekrops) with his daughters ( Aglaurus, Pandrosos, Herse). The statue of Poseidon was the largest sculpture in the pediment until it broke into pieces during Francesco Morosini's effort to remove it in 1688. The posterior piece of the torso was found by Lusieri in the groundwork of a Turkish house in 1801 and is currently held in British Museum. The anterior portion was revealed by Ross in 1835 and is now held in the Acropolis Museum of Athens. [87]

Every statue on the west pediment has a fully completed back, which would have been impossible to see when the sculpture was on the temple this indicates that the sculptors put great effort into accurately portraying the human body. [86]

Athena Parthenos Edit

The only piece of sculpture from the Parthenon known to be from the hand of Phidias [88] was the statue of Athena housed in the naos. This massive chryselephantine sculpture is now lost and known only from copies, vase painting, gems, literary descriptions and coins. [89]

Late antiquity Edit

A major fire broke out in the Parthenon shortly after the middle of the third century AD [90] [91] which destroyed the Parthenon's roof and much of the sanctuary's interior. [92] Heruli pirates are also credited with sacking Athens in 276, and destroying most of the public buildings there, including the Parthenon. [93] Repairs were made in the fourth century AD, possibly during the reign of Julian the Apostate. [94] A new wooden roof overlaid with clay tiles was installed to cover the sanctuary. It sloped at a greater incline than the original roof and left the building's wings exposed. [92]

The Parthenon survived as a temple dedicated to Athena for nearly 1,000 years until Theodosius II, during the Persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire, decreed in 435 AD that all pagan temples in the Eastern Roman Empire be closed. [95] However, it is debated exactly when during the 5th-century that the closure of the Parthenon as a temple was actually put into practice. It is suggested to have occurred in c. 481–484, in the instructions against the remaining temples by order of Emperor Zeno, because the temple had been the focus of Pagan Hellenic opposition against Zeno in Athens in support of Illus, who had promised to restore Hellenic rites to the temples that were still standing. [96]

At some point in the Fifth Century, Athena's great cult image was looted by one of the emperors and taken to Constantinople, where it was later destroyed, possibly during the siege and sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade in 1204 AD. [97]

Christian church Edit

The Parthenon was converted into a Christian church in the final decade of the sixth century AD [24] to become the Church of the Parthenos Maria (Virgin Mary) or the Church of the Theotokos (Mother of God). The orientation of the building was changed to face towards the east the main entrance was placed at the building's western end, and the Christian altar and iconostasis were situated towards the building's eastern side adjacent to an apse built where the temple's pronaos was formerly located. [98] [99] [100] A large central portal with surrounding side-doors was made in the wall dividing the cella, which became the church's nave, from the rear chamber, the church's narthex. [98] The spaces between the columns of the opisthodomos and the peristyle were walled up, though a number of doorways still permitted access. [98] Icons were painted on the walls and many Christian inscriptions were carved into the Parthenon's columns. [94] These renovations inevitably led to the removal and dispersal of some of the sculptures.

The Parthenon became the fourth most important Christian pilgrimage destination in the Eastern Roman Empire after Constantinople, Ephesos, and Thessaloniki. [101] In 1018, the emperor Basil II went on a pilgrimage to Athens directly after his final victory over the Bulgarians for the sole purpose of worshipping at the Parthenon. [101] In medieval Greek accounts it is called the Temple of Theotokos Atheniotissa and often indirectly referred to as famous without explaining exactly which temple they were referring to, thus establishing that it was indeed well known. [101]

At the time of the Latin occupation, it became for about 250 years a Roman Catholic church of Our Lady. During this period a tower, used either as a watchtower or bell tower and containing a spiral staircase, was constructed at the southwest corner of the cella, and vaulted tombs were built beneath the Parthenon's floor. [102]

Islamic mosque Edit

In 1456, Ottoman Turkish forces invaded Athens and laid siege to a Florentine army defending the Acropolis until June 1458, when it surrendered to the Turks. [103] The Turks may have briefly restored the Parthenon to the Greek Orthodox Christians for continued use as a church. [104] Some time before the close of the fifteenth century, the Parthenon became a mosque. [105] [106]

The precise circumstances under which the Turks appropriated it for use as a mosque are unclear one account states that Mehmed II ordered its conversion as punishment for an Athenian plot against Ottoman rule. [107] The apse became a mihrab, [108] the tower previously constructed during the Roman Catholic occupation of the Parthenon was extended upwards to become a minaret, [109] a minbar was installed, [98] the Christian altar and iconostasis were removed, and the walls were whitewashed to cover icons of Christian saints and other Christian imagery. [110]

Despite the alterations accompanying the Parthenon's conversion into a church and subsequently a mosque, its structure had remained basically intact. [111] In 1667 the Turkish traveller Evliya Çelebi expressed marvel at the Parthenon's sculptures and figuratively described the building as "like some impregnable fortress not made by human agency". [112] He composed a poetic supplication stating that, as "a work less of human hands than of Heaven itself, should remain standing for all time". [113] The French artist Jacques Carrey in 1674 visited the Acropolis and sketched the Parthenon's sculptural decorations. [114] Early in 1687, an engineer named Plantier sketched the Parthenon for the Frenchman Graviers d’Ortières. [92] These depictions, particularly those made by Carrey, provide important, and sometimes the only, evidence of the condition of the Parthenon and its various sculptures prior to the devastation it suffered in late 1687 and the subsequent looting of its art objects. [114]

Destruction Edit

In 1687, the Parthenon was extensively damaged in the greatest catastrophe to befall it in its long history. [94] As part of the Morean War (1684–1699), the Venetians sent an expedition led by Francesco Morosini to attack Athens and capture the Acropolis. The Ottoman Turks fortified the Acropolis and used the Parthenon as a gunpowder magazine – despite having been forewarned of the dangers of this use by the 1656 explosion that severely damaged the Propylaea – and as a shelter for members of the local Turkish community. [115]

On 26 September a Venetian mortar round, fired from the Hill of Philopappos, blew up the magazine, and the building was partly destroyed. [116] The explosion blew out the building's central portion and caused the cella's walls to crumble into rubble. [111] Greek architect and archaeologist Kornilia Chatziaslani writes that ". three of the sanctuary’s four walls nearly collapsed and three-fifths of the sculptures from the frieze fell. Nothing of the roof apparently remained in place. Six columns from the south side fell, eight from the north, as well as whatever remained from the eastern porch, except for one column. The columns brought down with them the enormous marble architraves, triglyphs, and metopes." [92] About three hundred people were killed in the explosion, which showered marble fragments over nearby Turkish defenders [115] and caused large fires that burned until the following day and consumed many homes. [92]

Accounts written at the time conflict over whether this destruction was deliberate or accidental one such account, written by the German officer Sobievolski, states that a Turkish deserter revealed to Morosini the use to which the Turks had put the Parthenon expecting that the Venetians would not target a building of such historic importance. Morosini was said to have responded by directing his artillery to aim at the Parthenon. [92] [115] Subsequently, Morosini sought to loot sculptures from the ruin and caused further damage in the process. Sculptures of Poseidon and Athena's horses fell to the ground and smashed as his soldiers tried to detach them from the building's west pediment. [99] [117]

The following year, the Venetians abandoned Athens to avoid a confrontation with a large force the Turks had assembled at Chalcis at that time, the Venetians had considered blowing up what remained of the Parthenon along with the rest of the Acropolis to deny its further use as a fortification to the Turks, but that idea was not pursued. [115]

Once the Turks had recaptured the Acropolis, they used some of the rubble produced by this explosion to erect a smaller mosque within the shell of the ruined Parthenon. [118] For the next century and a half, parts of the remaining structure were looted for building material and especially valuable objects. [119]

The 18th century was a period of Ottoman stagnation—so that many more Europeans found access to Athens, and the picturesque ruins of the Parthenon were much drawn and painted, spurring a rise in philhellenism and helping to arouse sympathy in Britain and France for Greek independence. Amongst those early travelers and archaeologists were James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, who were commissioned by the Society of Dilettanti to survey the ruins of classical Athens. What they produced was the first measured drawings of the Parthenon, published in 1787 in the second volume of Antiquities of Athens Measured and Delineated. In 1801, the British Ambassador at Constantinople, the Earl of Elgin, obtained a questionable firman (edict) from the Sultan, whose existence or legitimacy has not been proved to this day, to make casts and drawings of the antiquities on the Acropolis, to demolish recent buildings if this was necessary to view the antiquities, and to remove sculptures from them. [ cita necesaria ]

Independent Greece Edit

When independent Greece gained control of Athens in 1832, the visible section of the minaret was demolished only its base and spiral staircase up to the level of the architrave remain intact. [120] Soon all the medieval and Ottoman buildings on the Acropolis were destroyed. However, the image of the small mosque within the Parthenon's cella has been preserved in Joly de Lotbinière's photograph, published in Lerebours's Excursions Daguerriennes in 1842: the first photograph of the Acropolis. [121] The area became a historical precinct controlled by the Greek government. In the later 19th century, the Parthenon was widely considered by Americans and Europeans to be the pinnacle of human architectural achievement, and became a popular destination and subject of artists, including Frederic Edwin Church and Sanford Robinson Gifford. [122] [123] Today it attracts millions of tourists every year, who travel up the path at the western end of the Acropolis, through the restored Propylaea, and up the Panathenaic Way to the Parthenon, which is surrounded by a low fence to prevent damage. [ cita necesaria ]

Dispute over the marbles Edit

The dispute centers around the Parthenon Marbles removed by Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin, from 1801 to 1803, which are in the British Museum. A few sculptures from the Parthenon are also in the Louvre in Paris, in Copenhagen, and elsewhere, but more than half are in the Acropolis Museum in Athens. [20] [124] A few can still be seen on the building itself. The Greek government has campaigned since 1983 for the British Museum to return the sculptures to Greece. [124] The British Museum has steadfastly refused to return the sculptures, [125] and successive British governments have been unwilling to force the Museum to do so (which would require legislation). Nevertheless, talks between senior representatives from Greek and British cultural ministries and their legal advisors took place in London on 4 May 2007. These were the first serious negotiations for several years, and there were hopes that the two sides might move a step closer to a resolution. [126]

In 1975, the Greek government began a concerted effort to restore the Parthenon and other Acropolis structures. After some delay, a Committee for the Conservation of the Acropolis Monuments was established in 1983. [127] The project later attracted funding and technical assistance from the European Union. An archaeological committee thoroughly documented every artifact remaining on the site, and architects assisted with computer models to determine their original locations. Particularly important and fragile sculptures were transferred to the Acropolis Museum. A crane was installed for moving marble blocks the crane was designed to fold away beneath the roofline when not in use. [ cita necesaria ] In some cases, prior re-constructions were found to be incorrect. These were dismantled, and a careful process of restoration began. [128] Originally, various blocks were held together by elongated iron H pins that were completely coated in lead, which protected the iron from corrosion. Stabilizing pins added in the 19th century were not so coated, and corroded. Since the corrosion product (rust) is expansive, the expansion caused further damage by cracking the marble. [129]


Phidias(?), Parthenon Frieze, c. 438-32 B.C.E. - Historia


General Parthenon Info:
  • Iktinos and Kallikrates are credited with the architectural design of the Parthenon
    • artists begin to sign their names to their work for the first time in Ancient Greece
      • move from artisans to artists
      • civic purpose rather than religious, ritual purpose
      • written inventory discovered
        • kept record of valuables
        • symbol of ritual power and political power
        • columns carved exactly the same
          • entasis: slight bulge in the taper of the columns
          • allusion of perfection
          • only in the modern era that it became a ruin

          Basic Information:
          Phidias (?), "Plaque of the Ergastines," 445 - 438 B.C.E., Pentelic marble (Attica), 0.96 x 2.07 m, fragment from the frieze on the east side of the Parthenon (Musée du Louvre, Paris)

          Sources Consulted:
          "Western sculpture". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
          Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2016. Web. 18 Oct. 2016
          < https://www.britannica.com/art/Western-sculpture/Ancient-Greek >.

          (Detail)


          Pediment Sculpture

          Figures of three goddesses from the east pediment of the Parthenon, c. 438-432 B.C.E., 233 cm long, Acropolis, Athens © Trustees of the British Museum

          The east pediment of the Parthenon showed the birth of goddess Athena from the head of her father Zeus. The sculptures that represented the actual scene are lost. Zeus was probably shown seated, while Athena was striding away from him fully grown and armed.

          Only some of the figures ranged on either side of the lost central group survive. They include these three goddesses, who were seated to the right of centre. From left to right, their posture varies in order to accommodate the slope of the pediment that originally framed them. They are remarkable for their naturalistic rendering of anatomy blended with a harmonious representation of complex draperies.

          The figure on the left is on the point of rising and tucks her right foot in to lever herself up. To the right another figure cradles a companion reclining luxuriously in her lap. They are perhaps, from left to right, Hestia, goddess of the hearth and home, Dione, and her daughter Aphrodite. However, another suggestion is that the two figures on the right are the personification of the Sea (Thalassa) in the lap of the Earth (Gaia).


          Ver el vídeo: Pericles, Aspasia, Fídias, el Partenón y su época